Total area: 357 021 km² (137,847 sq mi)
Population: 81,799,600 million (2010 estimate)
Officially known as the Federal Republic of Germany, Germany is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country is made up of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. With close to 82 million inhabitants, it is the most populous member state and the largest economy in the European Union. It is also one of the major and weight-carrying political powers of the European continent and showing technological leadership and progression in many fields.
Germany has a social market economy with a highly qualified and skilled labour work force, a large capital stock, considerably low levels of corruption, and a high degree of innovation. The service sector contributes approximately 71% of the total GDP, industry 28%, and agriculture 0.9%. The average national unemployment rate in 2010 was about 7.5%
It is also the world's fourth largest economy by nominal GDP and the fifth largest by purchasing power parity. It is the second largest exporter (after China and followed by the US) and third largest importer of goods (this time behind the US and China). The German economy focuses on industrially produced goods and services. In particular, German mechanical engineering products, vehicles, and chemicals are goods which are consistently good in quality and precision and highly valued internationally. Around one euro in every four is gained from exports and more than every fifth job depends directly or indirectly on foreign trade.
Due to utmost organisation and thorough long-term planning, the country has developed a very high standard of living and a comprehensive system of social security. Germany has also been the home of many influential scientists and inventors, and in addition, is known around the world for its cultural and political history.
Germany is also one of the leading countries in developing and using green technologies. Companies specializing in green technology have an estimated turnover of 200€ billion. The expertise in engineering, science and research of Germany are very much respected throughout the world. The lead markets of Germany's green technology industry are -amongst others- material efficiency, power generation, energy efficiency, waste management and recycling, sustainable water management and mobility.
Sources: Wikipedia, Tatsachen-ueber-Deutschland
Germany comprises of 16 states that are collectively referred to as Länder Each state has its own state constitution and is largely autonomous in regard to organising its own affairs. Due to differences in size and population the subdivision of these states varies, especially between city states and states with larger territories. Below the 16 State’s capital areas and populations:
State Capital Area (km²) Population
Baden-Württemberg Stuttgart 35,752 10,717,000
Bavaria Munich 70,549 12,444,000
Berlin Berlin 892 3,400,000
Brandenburg Potsdam 29,477 2,568,000
Bremen Bremen 404 663,000
Hamburg Hamburg 755 1,735,000
Hesse Wiesbaden 21,115 6,098,000
Lower Saxony Hanover 47,618 8,001,000
Mecklenburg-Vorpommern Schwerin 23,174 1,720,000
North Rhine-Westphalia Düsseldorf 34,043 18,075,000
Rhineland-Palatinate Mainz 19,847 4,061,000
Saarland Saarbrücken 2,569 1,056,000
Saxony Dresden 18,416 4,296,000
Saxony-Anhalt Magdeburg 20,445 2,494,000
Schleswig-Holstein Kiel 15,763 2,829,000
Thuringia Erfurt 16,172 2,355,000
Most of Germany largely offers a temperate seasonal climate, where humid westerly winds predominate. The climate is somewhat moderated by the North Atlantic Drift, and more specifically, the northern extension of the Gulf Stream. This warmer water flow affects the areas bordering the North Sea; consequently in the north-west and the north, the climate can best described as oceanic. Rainfall occurs year-round, especially in the summer. Winters tend to be on the mild side and summers tend to be cool, though temperatures may sometimes exceed 30 °C (86 °F).
The eastern parts of Germany have a more continental climate; winters can be very cold and summers very warm, and long dry periods are frequent. Central and Southern Germany are transition regions which vary from moderately oceanic to continental. In addition to the maritime and continental climates that predominate over most of the country, the Alpine regions in the extreme south and, to a lesser degree, some areas of the Central German Uplands have a mountain climate, characterized by lower temperatures and greater precipitation.